Tobacco According to the British “Guardian” reported, according to estimates, as many as 80,000 children in Malawi involved in tobacco production. The picture shows a farm picking tobacco in Malawi’s two children.
In the busiest time of harvest, Malawi vibrant, flat extension of the land is covered with yellow-green leaves picking children, some of them not even 5 years old.

5-year-old Ole Farah (Olofala) is a member of them. Every day he leaves with her parents in the main producing areas in Kasungu, Malawi’s rural labor. When asked whether to go to school next year, he shrugged his shoulders helplessly.
For Ole Farah, the one thing is certain: the work of the first, second reading. His sister, 12-year-old Ethel had read the book three years. And had to go to work sick as the reason, she went to school time is not the law. “I cough.” Ethel said, “my chest hurts, my head hurts and sometimes feel out of breath.”
The plight of child labor

According to the “2010 U.S. Labor Report,” before the 1980s, most of the world tobacco production from the United States. Today, about 85 percent of world tobacco production from the use of child labor in developing countries.

Malawi has the largest number of child labor in Africa. The health issues aside, children are also suffering from economic exploitation. Ole Farah and Ethel often work 12 hours a day, but earn less than $ 1. They are in the “help” for a farmer working parents. Other children for a long time without a break in labor, can only earn $ 0.25 a day. According to statistics, Kasungu has 22000 registered farms and estates.

Even so, they are considered lucky. Some children have never seen the money they deserve. “We have a lot of children were lured by high wages working on the farm report has been working to produce end of the quarter, they only get an old shirt.” NGO “International Children’s Rights” project manager Grace Malawi * Mai Sangya said.

Crux of the problem is all the bad economic situation in Malawi. To feed their families, parents have to let their children out to work to earn money.

In the past 10 years, Malawi has become the world’s fifth largest tobacco producer. This is mainly on lower tariffs on unprocessed tobacco, low labor costs and lack of regulatory-driven. According to the United Nations Statistics Department statistics, 98% of Malawi’s low-cost tobacco for export, mainly destined for Europe and the United States.
Justice of the itch

Over 90% of the Malawi tobacco by a US-based Universal Leaf Corporation and Alliance One International bought. The two companies will be resold those other international tobacco companies. Their main customers are the two major world producers of cigarettes: Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco. Thus, in Western countries consumed almost every one has blended cigarettes in the Malawi tobacco.

Malawi is one of the United Nations and the ILO convention on child labor parties, the country will also have to stop hiring children under 14 years of legal framework. Why, then, the government turned a blind eye to child labor? The answer is simple: According to the UN FAO, Malawi economy is dependent on tobacco, tobacco exports of the country’s export revenue of 70%.

“Some estate to comply with the provisions do not use child labor, but also some estate in the high profits, driven by contempt for the law.” Malawi project consultant ????? Pakistan said that in the past two years, only 49 farmers due to use of child labor is charged, fined $ 34 in most trouble.

The ILO said the Malawi legal system contributed to the gaps and contradictions of child labor problems.
“Malawi’s legal system is very fragile.” UNICEF Child Protection Programme Officer Tomoko Horii said. She believes that the number of commitments to reduce child labor than to decorating the facade of the measures in response to growing international pressure better. Aimed at reducing child labor laws are not the number of special measures, the most important thing is not enough budget. “The budget allocation is negligible. So far all the projects have had to rely on international non-governmental organizations to finance.” Tomoko Horii said.

This view caused the ILO child labor consultant Khalid Hassan Malawi resonance. “Ratification of the Convention and by law can not solve the problem.” Hassan said, “You need money, dedication, cost-effective programs, infrastructure and hard work.”
Difficult to break deadlock

Has a policy against child labor multinational tobacco giants insisted that they follow the regulations. British American Tobacco, said on its Web site, “in the world were operating in the employment of children”, but acknowledged that by making it difficult to track brokers to buy tobacco leaf from which countries, and ensure that all farmers are not using child labor compliance regulations.

Malawi’s education system is weak, only 1 / 3 of the children to complete primary school. “Unless the education sector strong, to provide all children with quality education, otherwise children will continue to have such a labor.” Tomoko Horii said.
From the tobacco industry in the lucrative tobacco farming. According to the 2008 financial report, the world’s five largest tobacco companies earned a total of $ 300 billion more than the GDP of some 40 countries is even higher.

“If the big tobacco companies sincerely want to improve the child’s social and economic situation, they should refuse to buy any use of child labor in the production of tobacco.” University of California Tobacco Control and Education Center, Stanton Ge Lanci said.
In response, the tobacco giant does not agree. “Simply stop buying tobacco from Malawi, the country will not help solve serious child labor problems.” Philip Morris International, Foreign Affairs Director Anne Edwards said.

In this stalemate to continue the case, can not fail to mention this fact: Malawi from the “green gold” little benefit. It is still one of the world’s least developed countries, in the “2010 Human Development Index” in the 169 countries listed in ranked No. 153. 1320 million people in Malawi, about 40% of people living on $ 1.25 a day poverty line.
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